法律惩戒模式起源的内部因素小结

毒品控制之法律惩戒模式内容的产生原因极为复杂。在这些原因之中,既有美国禁毒外交因素的积极作用,也有国内各种内在要素的交互影响。作为美国毒品控制模式之中心内容的法律惩戒模式,从其产生的各类要素不难理解,推动该模式产生的动力抑或作用是由外向内、自下而上的一种力量趋势。这种美国所特有的促生毒品控制模式的因素,不仅涉及世纪之交的美国大国外交框架内的禁毒外交政策,也关系到联邦国家内部联邦与州之间的权力分配原则。此外,美国主流社会对于成瘾现象认识的变化也在相当程度上左右着美国麻醉品法的出现与发展。所谓由外向内,指的是在其禁毒外交政策的实施过程中,法律惩戒模式是出于其外交的需要而出现的。法律惩戒模式虽是应美国禁毒外交的需要而产生,但是,它又积极支撑且不断充实着美国禁毒外交在向外输出美国毒品控制理念时的内容所在。

这种能动的作用恰恰是美国两种控制模式——外交与法律——在互相作用之中而产生的特别关系。所谓自下而上,指的是法律惩戒模式的出现受益于地方立法及相关控制措施而又归于联邦麻醉品法体系之内容而言的。发生这种现象的主要原因在于,由于地方的差异与不同,美国各地所出现的毒品泛滥现象也存在着相对不同的内容。当然,地方州市在毒品泛滥中首当其冲却也是不争之实,而这一事实导致的地方立法之需自然较之联邦政府来得更为直观与紧迫,与此同时,美国联邦宪法对于联邦权力的限制则是造成这一趋势的另一重要因素。不过,各个地方的法律条款所能发挥的效用、范围乃至执法上的地方差异性,使得各自为战的地方麻醉品法在全国范围内的麻醉品使用浪潮冲击下显得力不从心,于是,由一个统一的联邦综合麻醉品法来管制州际的麻醉品滥用现象自然也就成为历史发展的必然趋势。

在这内外形势具备的情况下,美国联邦麻醉品立法的条件更随着非医源性麻醉品成瘾人群结构的变化所带来的社会主流对于成瘾现象认识的变化而不断成熟。总之,厘清美国法律惩戒模式的产生要素应不囿于某个方面的因素。只有从内外两个方面以及多个角度入手,明确美国联邦麻醉品法体系的出现乃是各种因素相互作用及碰撞的结果,方可对法律惩戒模式的产生有一个透彻的理解。

注释


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[4]该法将先前通过的所有禁毒法及其执法活动统一于该法之下。[EB/OL].[15 Oct. 2004]http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/drug_law_timeline.htm.

[5]20世纪初的美国立法,尤其是在道德层面上的立法内容可详细参照下列网页。[EB/OL].[15 Oct. 2010]http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/drug_law_timeline.htm.

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[15]Letter from HW to CHB, 9 Feb., 1910, WP, entry 31.

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